These valuable resources complement the Border Odyssey Project and provide additional information on a collection of border topics. ** Please keep in mind that these resources were collected while conducting research on the Border Odyssey Project. These complex topics are continually evolving.


African Americans

Buffalo Soldiers

National Park Service: Buffalo Soldiers
An article that provides a basic overview of the buffalo soldiers, including the origins of the group and their role in US history

National Park Service: Davis as a Frontier Outpost
A detailed history of Fort Davis and the fort’s role on the border and Texas "frontier"

Texas Beyond History: Fort Davis and the Trans Peckos Trails
An interesting collection of resources compiled by the University of Texas at Austin, which includes lots of interesting visuals that complement the historical content well

Art on the Border

La Frontera: Artists Along the US Mexican Border
This website documents Stefan Falke’s journey along the US Mexican border to photograph artists and their work

Border Artists
This website compiles the work of twenty artists in southern New Mexico and El Paso, Texas who create art through a variety of mediums

Border Art as a Political Strategy
A source of information about the history of border art and examples of exhibits along the border

Farmworker Activism

Student/Farmer Alliance
The Student/Farmer Alliance is a national network of students and youth that organize with farmworkers to fight sweatshop conditions and "modern-day slavery in the fields"

Farmworker Justice: H-2A Guestworker Program 
Farmworker Justice is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to empower migrant and seasonal farmworkers

Alliance for Fair Food
The Alliance for Fair Food (AFF) brings together a number of organizations in partnership with the Coalition of Immokalee Workers in Florida to eliminate unfair labor conditions and encourage socially responsible practices in the corporate food industry

Coalition of Immokalee Workers

The Coalition of Immokalee Workers is an internationally-recognized human rights organization in Florida that seeks to protect farmworkers' rights

Southern Poverty Law Center: Guestworker Programs in the US
This report by the Southern Poverty Law Center investigates the exploitation of workers from the time of recruitment to the workplace under the H-2A program

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Border Crossings (Official)

U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Border Wait Times
A table of estimated wait times updated hourly at both Canada/U.S. and Mexico/U.S. border points

PBS Frontline/World Investigation "Mexico: Crimes at the Border"
An inside-look into the business of human-trafficking, including an interactive map detailing the various security measures that have been taken along the border

Border Economics


See femicide

Council on Hemispheric Affairs: "Femicides of Juárez: Violence Against Women in Mexico"
An analysis that seeks to elucidate the connection between NAFTA, the rise of maquiladoras, and the escalating number of murders in Ciudad Juarez and other parts of Mexico

Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas: The Border Economy

An article written by William C. Gruben and Sherry L. Kiser examining the connection between NAFTA and the rise of maquiladoras


U.S. Department of Agriculture: NAFTA Policy
A summary of NAFTA and several useful links provided by the Foreign Agricultural Service

Office of the U.S. Trade Representative: NAFTA

A comprehensive description of NAFTA policy and a database of current press-releases, reports, and fact sheets

U.S. Department of State: NAFTA Investor-State Arbitration Cases
A valuable resource for exploring arbitration cases filed under NAFTA’s investment chapter

The Sierra Club: "NAFTA's Impact on Mexico"
An excellent factsheet on NAFTA, including its implications for health, the environment, and workers’ rights

The U.S. Department of State "NAFTA: Related Environmental Issues and Initiatives"
A closer look at the environmental provisions taken by the U.S. and Mexico

Border Battles: "NAFTA and Mexican Immigration"
A resource created by the Social Science Research Council with several valuable articles on immigration


PBS/Frontline "California: The Immigration Dilemma. Hard times stir up the issue in Central Valley"
A segment from the “Rough Cut” online video series discussing the plight of many undocumented workers in the U.S.

Border Education

Duke Engage in Tucson
A valuable site for learning about Duke student activists’ experiences on the border.

The BorderWorks Lab
A new Franklin Humanities Institute Lab at Duke University that draws critical perspectives from the humanities, social sciences, and policy studies to study various borders

National Geographic: Lesson Plans: The United States / Mexico Border
Useful lesson plans for high school students on border issues

National Immigration Forum
A valuable forum that advocates for the value of immigrants and immigration to the United States

Border Wall

The George W. Bush Whitehouse: The Secure Fence Act of 2006
An archived fact sheet discussing The Secure Fence Act of 2006, which dramatically increased construction and the number of troops along the border wall

Customs and Border Patrol (CBP): Border Patrol History
A resource that describes the origin and evolution of the U.S. Border Patrol

Customs and Border Patrol (CBP): Types of Fence
A resource describing the different “types of fence” used along the border

Center for Investigative Reporting: "SBInet is Dead, But Don’t Expect an End to Costly Border Survelliance"

An article discussing the end of SBInet, a very expensive and inefficient program used as a border surveillance strategy in an attempt to create a “virtual fence”

The Fence (La Barda)
A documentary film that, through a variety of perspectives, examines the creation of the fence/border wall along the U.S.-Mexico Border

National Geographic: "Korea's DMZ: Dangerous Divide"

An intreaging National Geographic article that describes the unique and dangerous situation on the border between North and South Korea

UNESCO: "The Great Wall"

An informative webpage that describes “The Great Wall” of China, one of the most well know, ancient forms of border protection

B'Tselem - The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories: Seperation Barrier
Border Challenges in Israel

A data driven resource that describes the challenging situation on the West Bank

History Channel: Berlin Wall
A resource that describes one of the most notorious, iconic walls in history

Bracero Program

Bracero History Archive
An extensive collection of photographs, documents, and lesson plans on the Bracero Program created by the Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media, George Mason University, the Smithsonian National Museum of American History, Brown University, and The Institute of Oral History at the University of Texas at El Paso

Opportunity or Exploitation: The Bracero Program
The Smithsonian’s collection of photographs and items from the Bracero period

Calisphere: The Bracero Program
An excellent collection created by the University of California that includes photographs of bracero workers

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Immigrant Children

Center for Human Rights and Constitutional Law: The Immigrant Children Project
The Immigrant Children Project seeks to address the situation of unaccompanied migrant children and identify community-based services that are available to them

The Young Center for Immigrant Children's Rights
An organization that works to support and protect unaccompanied and separated immigrant children in the US according to state and federal law, as well as the Convention on the Rights of the Child

Southern California Public Radio: Generation 1.5
A report that provides a definition and short explanation of the "1.5 children"

One-and-a-Half Generation Mexican Youth Pursuing the Mobility Dream
An Oregon State Report documents the efforts of migrant children to pursue an education and achieve mobility

Education May Boost Fortunes of Second-Generation Latino Immigrants

An article examining the work trends of US-born children of Latino immigrants in comparison to their immigrant peers

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Detention Centers

U.S. Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE): Summary of Policy Reforms
An ICE resource with information on policy reforms  related to detention centers from 2009 to the present

Detention Watch Network
This website is a resource for activists with useful policy and educational materials

Government Accountability Office Report: "Alien Detention Standards: Observations on the Adherence to ICE’s
Medical Standards in Detention Facilities"

A detailed report with thought provoking information on medical care in “alien detention” facilities

Amnesty USA: "Jailed Without Justice: Immigrant Detention in the USA"
A critical look at immigrant detention in the United States

Dream Act

Dream Activist: Undocumented Students Action & Resource Network
A website providing facts about the Dream Act and Deferred Action, many other resources for undocumented youth, and a place where undocumented youth can share their stories

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services: Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
This portion of the USCIS website provides information on who qualifies for deferred action and how to file a request for deferred action

Huffington Post: Dream Act
This portion of the Huffington Post news website focuses on news and issues related to the Dream Act and to the Latino community

Drug Trafficking/Cartels

Congressional Research Service: "Mexico's Drug Trafficking Organizations: Source and Scope of the Rising Violence"
A report discussing the unprecedented rise in drug trafficking organizations (DTOs)

LA Times "Mexico Under Siege: The drug war at our doorstep"
Reports from both sides of the border on Mexican drug cartels and the ongoing drug trade to the United States.

Reagan’s War on Drugs

PBS "30 Years of America's Drug War: A Chronology"
A timeline outlining the drug war from the late 1960s to 2000

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Environmental Impacts

Environmental Protection Agency: US-Mexico Border 2020
The Border 2020 Program strengthens its focus on environmental improvement and addresses not only border waste, but also air pollution, safe water, and environmental stewardship

International League of Conservation Photographs
A project that documents the wildlife, landscapes and human communities of the borderlands and the impact the border wall has on them

The Southwest Environmental Center
An organization that works to protect and restore vital habitats and endangered species in the southwestern borderlands

Defenders of Wildlife
A publication on the impacts of immigration policy on wildlife in the Arizona borderlands

U.S. Border Fence with Mexico Threatens Endangered Wildlife
A Scientific American article explains how the border divides habitats and puts species at risk

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: Wildlife Without Border
The Wildlife Without Borders- Mexico program aims to conserve the shared natural wealth between the US and Mexico

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PBS "The Fight in the Fields Cesar Chavez and the Farmworkers' Struggle"
An informational tool for learning more about Chavez and the United Farm Workers of America (UFW)

Student Action with Farmworkers


Official page of the United Farm Workers of America
A valuable resource for exploring the current Farm Worker movement, including tips on how to take action

Educating Change: Latina Activism and the Struggle for Educational Equity
A useful resource created by Brown University, including links to online archives and exhibits related to the farm workers movement, education, and the Chinano/Mexican American civil rights movement


Crosslist "Border economics-maquiladoras"

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights: "The Situation of the Rights of Women in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico:
The Right to Be Free from Violence and Discrimination"

A report that considers the challenging human rights situation faced by women in Ciudad Juárez

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Government Resources

U.S. Customs and Border Control

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement

U.S. Department of Homeland Security: Immigration
A valuable resource for learning about federal enforcement of immigration and government-offered immigration services, such as naturalization and work authorization

U.S. Department of State: Visas
The official U.S. visa information source provided by the U.S. Bureau of Consular Affairs

Council on Foreign Relations: A Modern Visa System for the U.S.

A report by the Council on Foreign Relations explaining the current and proposed visa system

"Fixing the Immigration System for America’s 21st Century Economy"
President Obama’s speech on comprehensive immigration reform, given on May 10, 2011 in El Paso, Texas

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History of the Border

PBS: Interactive Timeline
PBS has a special section on their website outlining the US-Mexico Border History, including an interactive timeline

Smithsonian Education: US-Mexico Borderlands/Frontera
Smithsonian Education outlines the history of the US-Mexico Border from the Mexican War of Independence in 1810 to the present day

Human Trafficking

PBS Frontline/World "Mexico: Crimes at the Border"
An insightful investigation of the business of human trafficking across the U.S.-Mexican border

National Geographic: "Border Wars"
A television series depicting the work of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers and agents in their ongoing fight against “illegal” immigration across some of the busiest border ports of entry

The Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting: Mexico

An interesting collection of reports from Altar, Sonora on the business of human trafficking

PBS: "Dying to Leave"
A “Wide Angle” special documentary reporting on the the rise of undocumented immigration

The UN Global Compact: Human Trafficking
An examination of human trafficking, as well as approaches for companies in dealing with the associated risks

Humanitarian Groups

Border Action Network

This website describes a humanitarian organization working to build "the voice of immigrants across Arizona"

The Florence Project
This website describes the Florence Project, a wonderful nonprofit legal organization that works to support people who have been "detained by the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) division of the Department of Homeland
Security in Arizona"

Humane Borders
The website for this faith based organization discusses the work to "create a safe and death free border environment"

The Kino Border Initiative
Run by the Jesuit Refugee Service, the Kino Border Initiative aids those who are facing the harsh realities of immigration to the US, including apprehension, detention and deportation

No More Deaths
The website for an organization, striving to “end death and suffering on the U.S./Mexico border”

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Immigration: Documentary Resources

PBS: "The Border"
A two-hour documentary featuring six stories narrated by journalist John Quiñones from ABC's "20/20"

PBS: "Beyond the Border"
The story of one family who left their home in Mexico in pursuit of a better life in America

PBS: On the Border- Migrant Labor Resources
A collection of advocacy tools and documentary work on the plight of migrants along the border

NPR: "NPR Talks About Landmark Closing in Border Towns"

The struggle of prohibition-era cantinas to stay open on the border amidst drug war violenece

PBS: "New Americans"

The stories of a diverse group of immigrants and refugees, moving to the US and learning what it means to be new Americans in the 21st century

Indigenous People Along the Border

The Official Website of the Chiricahua Apache

PBS Series American Experience: "We Shall Remain"

A well-crafted episode of a five part PBS Series documents the story of Geronimo

Official website of the Tohono O’odham Nation

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Japanese American Internment Camps

Cross-ref: Indigenous People Along the Border

Smithsonian: "A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans & the U.S. Constitution"
A valuable tool for exploring the injustices faced by Japanese Americans through history

Densho Digital Archive: The Japanese American Legacy Project
A collection of firsthand accounts, historical images, and teaching curriculum to further explore the Japanese
American internment experience

National Park Services: Japanese-American Internment Sites Preservation
A report to the president regarding the Poston Relocation Center, located near the Colorado River Indian Tribal Land in Arizona

"An Internment Camp within an Internment Camp"
This article uncovers the disturbing truth behind the Poston internment camp

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Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930
Harvard University’s online collection of historical materials related to voluntary immigration to the United States

PBS "The City (La Ciudad)"
A documentary following the lives of new immigrants to the United States and the challenges they face upon arrival

PBS "On the Border: Migrant Labor in the United States"
Several useful resources that reveal how today’s immigrants are not so different from our own ancestors

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Mexican Politics

Modern Mexican Political Parties

BBC: Mexico Timeline: A Chronology of Key Events
A BBC News timeline that includes an informative overview of key events in Mexican politics from 1910 (the beginning of the Mexican Revolution) to the present

University of Texas at El Paso: Mexican Revolution Timeline
This timeline includes a two page overview of key events during the revolution

Minutemen Movement

Anti-Defamation League: The Minutemen
A description of the minutemen movement, including several resources on the armed vigilante activities in Arizona

Anti-Defamation League: Border Disputes: Armed Vigilantes in Arizona
A comprehensive report on several minutemen groups

Music on the Border

Border Cultures: Conjunto Music
A website by the University of Texas at Austin that examines the history, cultural significance and artistry of conjunto music in the border region

Smithsonian: The Texas-Mexican Conjunto
An article by the Smithsonian that discusses the conjunto’s role in preserving Mexican culture in America

NPR: Immigrant Songs Offer New Twist on Old Sounds
This NPR report explores how immigrants have used the power of music to express their difficult journeys to America

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National Parks & Monuments

National Park Services. U.S. Department of the Interior

Big Bend

Amistad National Recreation Area: Seminole Canyon

Organ Pipe Cactus

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Sexual Abuse of Migrant Workers

Human Rights Watch: The Vulnerability of Immigrant Farmworkers in the US to Sexual Violence and Sexual Harassment

A Human Rights Watch report examines the abuse of immigrant women and girls in America’s agricultural workplace

National Sexual Violence Resource Center
A collection of publications on the sexual harassment of immigrant women

Huffington Post: Female Farmworkers Abuse
An article by the Huffington Post explaining the horrible abuse of undocumented female workers

National Center for Farmworker Health: Examining the Sexual Harassment experiences of Mexican Immigrant Farmworking Women
An article investigating the sexual harassment of Mexican immigrant women employed on California farms

Border Stories

Border Stories
Various short documentaries that detail the different perspectives of those affected by the border: deported Mexican children, U.S. ranchers, border patrol, doctors, etc.
Clandestine Crossings: The Stories
A free e-book detailing nine stories of various people whose lives intersect with the U.S./Mexico border, including Mexican immigrants, coyotes, and US residents who harbor refugees

Border Realities
A website containing various stories of the hardships and cruelties endured by Mexicans while trying to cross the Mexican border, along with news on the border

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Border Technology

U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Secure Border Initiative
A collection of fact sheets detailing various Secure Border Initiative (“SBInet”) projects

New York Times: 28 Mile Virtual Fence Is Rising Along the Border
Information on the construction of a virtual fence known as “Project 28” for the 28 miles of border that towers monitor

NPR: Border Fence Project Riddled with Problems
A report by NPR discussing the problems with the “virtual fence” pilot project along the border

Technology to Enhance Border Security & International Trade
A report created by the North American Center for Transborder Studies at ASU that outlines various recommendations for a more secure border

Avatar Officer Installed at Arizona-Mexico Border Station
An interesting article about the first virtual border patrol officer and how this technology will play into immigration technology in the future

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Water Rights and the Rio Grande

International Boundary and Water Commission
The International Boundary and Water Commission is a federal government agency that seeks to provide binational solutions to issues specifically related to boundary demarcation, as well as national ownership of waters

Rio Grande International Study Center
This non-profit supports research, education, and campaigns to protect the water quality and vitality of the Rio Grande

World Wild Life Foundation
The World Wildlife Foundation includes the Rio Grande in its "10 Rivers at Risk"

Rio Grande Advisory Council (RAC)
The RAC is a network of educators, students, governmental agencies and other stakeholders on both sides of the border that are actively engaged in Rio Grande/Rio Bravo watershed issues and concerns

Westward Expansion

PBS: New Perspectives on the West
“The West” is an eight-part documentary series, which premiered on PBS stations in September 1996.

U.S. Bureau of Land Management. "History of the Transcontinental Railroad."

"Events in the West: 1870-1880." The West Film Project, 2001

Winter Texans

Winter Texans Study 2009-2010
Study by University of Texas-Pan American on “Winter Texans”

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